Simple Database Inventory Manager 2.1

sdim_ver_2-1_trunc_275x400

A while back, I took on a fairly big project; build an database inventory manager that did the following:

  • Dynamically gathered information on SQL Instances/Databases
  • Dynamically gathered information on the OS underneath
  • Compiled and organized this data in a single repository
  • Provided a client GUI front-end for ease of use.
  • Was built on free and already available tools.

When I initially finished Inventory Manger 1.0 I wrote a 5-part series that took the user through the steps of how I built what I did and how everything worked. This was a good way for me to iron out details and also provide some documentation along the way. As the months have progressed I added updates to the code and altered the posts as necessary.

Then everything went silent as I moved on to other things, but I was constantly going back and adding new features and options. During this interim, I was not able to get the code updated on GitHub, and thus it fell behind. Also, it had morphed into its own beast, moving out of “project” and more into a standard “software” mode. To signify its new direction, its name is now Simple Database Inventory Manager™.

As such, I have added the new 2.1 version to its own GitHub project (previously it existed in the SQL code section there with other unrelated snippets) and will update it accordingly. You can just download the new files and overwrite the old ones to get the new version. Spiffy, right?

db_datapull_frontend_v2-1
Look! 200% more buttons!™

I will keep the old 1.x version in the original repository so it doesn’t break links for the walk-through articles.

All that said, what fabulous prizes are in the new version? Glad you asked!

CMS Integration

Now you can point to your Central Management Server and the Simple Database Inventory Manager™ will pull a list of servers and instances from there. It will then go through all of them recursively, and pull whatever data you want back.

In DB_DataPull.ps1, you can switch this on or off with the -UseCMS switch. If on, then you will need to specify the CMS Server with the -CMSServer ‘SOMESERVER’ parameter.

If you use the -UseCMS option, this will delete all data from the repository tables and repopulate them based on what you have in the CMS. This is backwardly compatible with the old system in that if you don’t use the option (off by default) then it will continue to use the Server and Instance List you provided manually.

Fresh, New Buttons

‘Services’ has been folded into the Inventory heading and Other Info is no more, replaced by the Reporting section (below).

Composite buttons have been created to give better side-by-side information from the GUI. Server\Instance and Instance\DB buttons have been added to do this. I think their names are pretty self-explanatory. Click on them. See what happens.

Reporting

Kind of. A bunch of stock reports were added to the DB_DataPull_FrontEnd.ps1 under the Reporting heading. These rely on Views in the Reporting Schema that build customizable information you want returned.

I’m going to leave this schema (Reporting) pretty much alone for now, so users can create their own views and then use those as datasets if you want for SSRS. You can use SDIM™ as the basis for reports that refresh as often as you want to run DB_DataPull.ps1

Here’s a quick list of the out-of-the-box reports given in the GUI:

Servers Grouped by OS and Service Pack – A count of all Server OS names and versions.

Instances Grouped By SQL Version – A count of all Instances at a specific server version (ignores Service Pack)

Instances Grouped by SQL Version, Edition – A count of all instances by SQL Version and Edition (ignores Service Pack)

Instances Grouped By SQL Version, Edition and SP – A count of Instances based on SQL Server Version, Edition and Service Pack

Bug Fixes/Minor Enhancements

  • Fixed an incorrectly spelled column.
  • Fixed incorrect calculation of Server number.
  • Added extended properties to all tables.
  • Added header at the top of all Views and Procedures

And All the Rest

This (Simple Database Inventory Manager™) is of course provided free of charge, use-at-your-own-risk. There is no warranty either expressed or implied. If SDIM™ burns down your data center, uninstalls all your favorite toolbars and ruins your best pair of dress socks, I’m not at fault. Remember to back up your databases!

And if you’ve skipped over everything just to get to the link, here it is: SDIMS v2.1

-CJ Julius

SQL Server on Linux: First 30 minutes

They put a ring on it.
They put a ring on it.

What I gushed over a few posts ago has finally happened! SQL Server has a come to Linux (sort of). The database engine is now available as CTP1 and you can get it by adding the repository and running the setup script.

You can follow the walk through for your favorite flavor of Linux, so I won’t repeat that here. it’s really very simple, just a matter of pointing to the correct repository and then apt-get install (Ubuntu). It comes with a setup script that pretty much does all the heavy lifting for you. Keep in mind that this is just for preview so there’s not a lot of options and it sticks everything in a single set of directories (logs/data/tempdb).

I had a small problem when I did the install, but it turned out I just needed to update a few packages. In the event you’re not a Linux person, here’s the easiest way to fix this:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get upgrade

There’s a lot of stuff to dig into in this release, and as newer versions come out I’ll get more in-depth, but I just wanted to make a quick post about what I did in my first thirty minutes.

Behold in awe my INSERT abilities.
Behold in awe my INSERT abilities.

After the install, I connected via SQLCMD, as there is no SSMS in Linux yet, using the sa and sa password set in the install. I then created a table, dropping a single row into it and then selecting. Not terribly complex stuff.

I took care to try different cases, adding and neglecting brackets ‘[]’ and semicolons. It responded how I expected it to react if I was on a Windows system, which is very reassuring. It’s nice that my T-SQL skills translate seamlessly to the Linux environment, at least internally to SQL Server.

Connected via a my own username.
It doesn’t look or act any different than it I would have if connected to a Windows SQL Server instance.

Next, I put my box ‘U64’ on the network and lo-and-behold I was able to remote into it by its Linux hostname from SSMS 2016 on a Windows machine. No additional setup was required. Microsoft appears to be taking this integration of the Linux and Windows environments seriously.

I then created a SQL login for myself and logged in that way. No issues.

Now, as fun as this was, there’s a whole lot missing. The list includes, but is not limited to:

  • Full-text Search
  • Replication
  • Extended Stored Procedures
  • AD authentication
  • SQL Server Agent
  • SSIS
  • SSAS

This is of course just for CTP1, so a lot of these items will probably show up later. I mean, SQL Server without the SQL Server Agent? That doesn’t even make sense (I’m looking at you Express Edition). There is sort of cascade effect as other items like Maintenance Plans and such that rely on these missing features also being MIA.

The gang's all here!
The gang’s all here!

Also, larger items like Availability groups will also be absent because there’s no Linux analogue for them currently. From what the SQL Server team said in their AMA on reddit they’re toying around with RedHat clustering as a replacement for this in the Linux environment.

The last thing I did before the end of my 30 minutes was to look at the version. As you may or may not know, the Linux version is based on SQL Server vNext, which (as the name implies) is the NEXT version of SQL Server. There was some talk about it being a port of SQL Server 2016, which does not appear to be the case.

SELECT @@VERSION
----------------------------------------------------
Microsoft SQL Server vNext (CTP1) - 14.0.1.246 (X64)
Nov 1 2016 23:24:39
Copyright (c) Microsoft Corporation
on Linux (Ubuntu 16.04.1 LTS)

Note that SQL Server 2016 is version 13.0.

And that’s it! As mentioned before I’ll be doing deeper dives into this as time goes on, at the very least with each CTP. But I have to say I’m happy with the results so far. Everything (that was available) worked as I expected it to work. Nice work MS!

-CJ Julius

A Simple Way to Archive Data

We needed a way to archive data.  I have seen this request multiple times in my career and the most common solutions I have seen either used:

  1. INSERT data into the archive table, then DELETE data from the original table, or
  2. SSIS, or
  3. Table partitioning

All of these options are great, but they all have drawbacks that we weren’t happy with.

We needed our process to meet the following criteria:

  1. Archive anything older than 1 year
  2. Store archive data in a separate database
  3. Run the archive process daily
  4. Do not interfere with other database transactions
  5. Minimal administrative overhead (Isn’t this always the case? J)

Once again, all of the options I mentioned in the first paragraph could have met these criteria, and I’m sure there are many other options as well.  However, I came across an article that presented exactly what I needed:

https://www.mssqltips.com/sqlservertip/2259/sql-server-2008-consume-output-directly-from-the-output-command/

It’s not anything new, as it was introduced in the 2008 version, but it is pretty handy.  I like this option because it only accesses the table from which you are archiving a single time (as opposed to option #1 above), and it comes with very low administrative overhead (unlike options #2 and #3 above).

I created a stored proc which uses dynamic SQL to build archive statements which utilize the method from the article.  The proc is called from a SQL Server Agent job, which is run every 10 seconds for a 2 hour period every night.  We had to find the “sweet spot” of how many records to archive at a single time, versus how often to run the job (this is because if we query too many records, we can start blocking user queries, but if we query too few, or run the job too infrequently, then we don’t keep up with the volume of data that needs to be archived).  The other good thing about this method is that if the proc is still running when the next scheduled execution comes up, it will just skip that execution and try again 10 seconds later – in our case, missing a few runs is not a big deal.

The other thing to notice is that the DEADLOCK PRIORITY is set to LOW.  This will ensure that this proc is always the deadlock victim, and not other user queries.

Anyway, here is the link to the project.

Enjoy!

-Clint

Stored Procedure to Back Up Encryption Objects

Hello world!  For anyone that may see this, my name is Clint, and I have been working in enterprise-level IT for nearly a decade – mostly on the database side of things.  My buddy, Mr. Julius, has been kind enough to let me post on this blog, so I hope I do it justice.  I plan to share some cool things here.  Enough introduction.  On with it!

This link will take you to a stored procedure that I wrote to back up encryption objects, specifically Service Master Keys, Database Master Keys, and Certificates.  I am relatively new to working with SQL Server encryption, so I’m  not sure how this proc will evolve, but for now, it backs up all the encryption objects I need to be concerned with.

Why should we back up these objects?  Well, I won’t describe how SQL Server column-level encryption works – there are plenty of sites dedicated to that, and it would take a lot of typing.  In a nutshell, it’s because of this: if you lose one, or more, of these objects for any reason, you risk losing the ability to decrypt your data (which would basically mean it’s lost forever).  Therefore, you need the entire hierarchy of your encryption objects to be intact to have viable, encrypted data.  Some examples of why these objects may need to be backed up include:

  1. Service Master Keys are unique to a SQL Server Instance, so if you want the same key on a separate instance, you must manually restore to it.  These are not carried over in a DB backup/restore operation.
  2. Database Master Keys are re-encrypted when you restore a DB to SQL Server instance with a different Service Master Key, causing the “downstream” objects to also be re-encrypted (i.e. unreadable).   Therefore, even thought these are carried over when you do a backup/restore, if the Service Master Key was different upon restore, you won’t get the desired results.
  3. Certificates can be used to open/close keys (which, in turn, do the actual encryption/decryption).  One certificate can control many keys.  I believe, if you lose the certificate, but still have the keys, you can create a new certificate to control the keys…I am not sure about this!  I still have some testing to do, so I will update this post when I have definitive info.  Either way, to be safe, I back them up anyway.

The above list is not all-inclusive.  There may be many more reasons why you need to backup/restore the objects.

It seems crazy to me that there is not an “out of the box” way to back up these objects through the GUI, and/or schedule it, considering the MSDN page on Service Master Keys says it should be one of your first admin tasks performed on the server.  Maybe it’s a security concern to have something built-in to the product like that.  Who knows?

Some references are below in the event you want to dig a little deeper.   Hopefully this will prove helpful to someone besides me.  Later!

-Clint

References

 

(Almost) Everything is Going Open Source Now… and I LOVE it.

Why can't we be friends?
Why can’t we be friends?

While I’m putting together my big update on Inventory Manager, I thought I’d take some time to throw confetti into the air. There may be some excited clapping as well. I warned you.

I largely see myself as platform-agnostic. While I think that certain companies do individual products well, I also believe it’s fair to say that none of them do everything well. I use Android phones and Apple tablets, Linux for home (mostly) and Windows at work. Heck, I’ve got a Roku and a Chromecast because they both do things that the other doesn’t.  I’m all over the map, but all over the map is a great place to be, especially in the tech industry now.

Despite all of this, I have to admit I am partial to Free Open-Source Software (FOSS). Give me a choice between Ubuntu and Windows, and all other things being equal, I’ll choose the Debian-based option. I’ll admit my biases.

So, when MS started moving in this direction I was happy. I wanted to see this trend continue, and boy has it. First of all…

1. .NET Core is now running on Redhat.

When Microsoft announced that .Net was going open-source, I was cautiously optimistic. I’m not a big .Net coder, but I could see the benefit and was hopeful that MS would continue down this path.  This lead to some cool things that I thought I’d never see in a million years, like .Net running on Redhat.

There’s understandably some cynicism about Microsoft’s true intentions, as well as their long term goals, but this is the cross-over that I’ve been wanting to happen for a while. Blending the strengths of RHEL with .NET on top is a great start. If the .NET development platform can be ported, why not parts of the Windows Management Framework? We could even one day see…

2. Powershell on OSX and Linux.

I didn’t always like Powershell, in fact prior to Powershell 3, I just referred to it as PowerHell. Since 4.0, however, it’s no secret that I’m a fan; one look at my github will tell you that. I like its logical approach to (most) things and that it works for simple scripts quite easily, while being a powerhouse (no pun intended) behind the scenes.

Sorry, THIS is the coolest thing ever.
This is the coolest thing ever.

This shell coming to OSX and Linux will be a boon for both systems. While I am, and will probably always be, a bash scripting guy, Powershell in Windows just makes everything so gosh-darn easy. If I could whip up a PS1 script with a few imported modules and attach it to a cron job with ease, then I think everybody wins,  mostly me. But, if I decide that I want to use bash instead, that’s okay because…

3. Bash is running on Windows.

This isn’t a one way transition. Microsoft is making a trade, bringing one of the most widely used shells to Windows. This not only makes scripts more portable, but also knowledge.

Have some ultra-fast Linux bash script that works wonders? Super, you now have it Windows, too. Wrote a script to do some directory work in Powershell? Great, you now know how to do it in Linux.

You can't tell me that isn't the coolest thing ever.
I’m sorry, THIS is the coolest thing ever.

There are very few downsides to this, other than the obvious security issues and that it isn’t truly a stand-alone shell (it’s part of Ubuntu on Windows). In any case, it allows interoperability  between software from different systems. This is great now that…

4. SQL Server is on Linux.

This isn’t technically going open source, as it will run inside a container, but the idea that this will now be possible and supported is like something out of my greatest dreams.

I have a maybe-controversial opinion that SQL Server is the best relational database system out there. For all its faults, I’d rather use SQL Server 2005 SP1 than Oracle 12c. Just the way I feel, and for reasons I won’t go into here. I hope the things I like about SQL Server translate to the Linux environment.

The fact that Ubuntu is supporting this with Microsoft is great. I can’t wait to use my favorite OS with my favorite database engine on the same system.

Last thoughts

There are other items I’ve glossed over, but these are the big ones to me. Soon, we will be able to run SQL Server on Ubuntu Linux with cron jobs executing Powershell for a .Net application that resides on an RHEL box. *excited clapping* (I warned you.)

It’s a great time to be in the tech industry.

-CJ Julius

 

A Funny Thing Happened on my way to enable Management Data Warehouse

Three Job Schedules walk into a bar…
uh-oh
uh-oh.

Management Data Warehouse is a neat tool for collecting data on your instances with regards to performance, disk usage, and anything else related to SQL Server you might want to know. I’ve recently been rolling it out to various servers in test environments to get a good handle on all that it can do, and maybe more importantly, how it’s going to affect performance.

When I was satisfied that it was working the way I wanted in these environments, I started to push it to what you could call QA. Immediately I was hit with litany of errors, all of which said basically the same thing:

Caught error#: 14684, Level: 16, State: 1, in Procedure: sp_syscollector_create_collection_set, Line: 203, with Message: Caught error#: 14262, Level: 16, State: 1, in Procedure: sp_syscollector_create_collection_set, Line: 80, with Message: The specified @schedule_name ('CollectorSchedule_Every_30min') does not exist. (Microsoft SQL Server, Error: 14684)

Um, what? Of course it doesn’t exist, I’m installing it now. Just to verify, I did some poking around, and I found that it was indeed attempting to add a schedule that didn’t exist (as you would expect) to the collection set. After a while my Jr DBA (read: Google) turned up this article on removing MDW which says, in no uncertain terms:

The fact is that, while these schedules may look like they were created by MDW, they are created by default in a default installation of SQL Server 2008 or above. You can delete these easily, if you really want to, and if you are sure you will never enable MDW again. I would still suggest scripting the schedules and saving those scripts to your file system or source control so that you can recover them in the future.

I took a look back on the TEST instances where I was previously successful and found these schedules existed both on instances where MDW had been installed, and in places where it had not. These were part of the defaut SQL Server install and had been manually removed. Whoops.

As far as I know, there isn’t any direct way to script out schedules, so I could port them to the boxes where they had been removed. To get around this, I added them to the collector set jobs and then scripted that. Then I was able to change a few variables (and remove the schedule_uid) so that this:

EXEC @ReturnCode = msdb.dbo.sp_add_jobschedule @job_id=@jobId, @name=N'CollectorSchedule_Every_15min',
@enabled=0,
@freq_type=4,
@freq_interval=1,
@freq_subday_type=4,
@freq_subday_interval=15,
@freq_relative_interval=0,
@freq_recurrence_factor=0,
@active_start_date=20080709,
@active_end_date=99991231,
@active_start_time=0,
@active_end_time=235959,
@schedule_uid=N'SOME-GUID-HERE'

became this:

EXEC msdb.dbo.sp_add_schedule @schedule_name=N'CollectorSchedule_Every_15min',
@enabled=0,
@freq_type=4,
@freq_interval=1,
@freq_subday_type=4,
@freq_subday_interval=15,
@freq_relative_interval=0,
@freq_recurrence_factor=0,
@active_start_date=20080709,
@active_end_date=99991231,
@active_start_time=0,
@active_end_time=235959
GO

I ran these add_schedules on the QA boxes, went through the Configure Management Data Warehouse Wizard again, and tada!

Green means good.
Green is good. Green is life.

For your convenience, I’ve scripted out the four schedules I needed to get it going below. These are not from the most current version of SQL Server (2016 as of this writing), and are not all of the schedules included out of the box, but these let me get MDW running so I could add my own custom schedules for the remainder.

The moral of this story: Don’t remove MDW schedules unless you really mean it, for all time, forever and ever, pinky swear.

The four ‘core’ schedules I needed, for your convenience:

EXEC msdb.dbo.sp_add_schedule @schedule_name=N'CollectorSchedule_Every_6h',
@enabled=0,
@freq_type=4,
@freq_interval=1,
@freq_subday_type=8,
@freq_subday_interval=6,
@freq_relative_interval=0,
@freq_recurrence_factor=0,
@active_start_date=20080709,
@active_end_date=99991231,
@active_start_time=0,
@active_end_time=235959
GO

EXEC msdb.dbo.sp_add_schedule @schedule_name=N'CollectorSchedule_Every_30min',
@enabled=0,
@freq_type=4,
@freq_interval=1,
@freq_subday_type=4,
@freq_subday_interval=30,
@freq_relative_interval=0,
@freq_recurrence_factor=0,
@active_start_date=20080709,
@active_end_date=99991231,
@active_start_time=0,
@active_end_time=235959
GO

EXEC msdb.dbo.sp_add_schedule @schedule_name=N'CollectorSchedule_Every_15min',
@enabled=0,
@freq_type=4,
@freq_interval=1,
@freq_subday_type=4,
@freq_subday_interval=15,
@freq_relative_interval=0,
@freq_recurrence_factor=0,
@active_start_date=20080709,
@active_end_date=99991231,
@active_start_time=0,
@active_end_time=235959
GO

EXEC msdb.dbo.sp_add_schedule @schedule_name=N'RunAsSQLAgentServiceStartSchedule',
@enabled=1,
@freq_type=64,
@freq_interval=0,
@freq_subday_type=0,
@freq_subday_interval=0,
@freq_relative_interval=0,
@freq_recurrence_factor=0,
@active_start_date=20080709,
@active_end_date=99991231,
@active_start_time=0,
@active_end_time=235959
GO

If one of these schedules gets created twice you can look up the job id or use SSMS to ‘Pick’ the schedule for the duplicated schedule (the id is in the first column). And run this to remove it:

--EXEC msdb.dbo.sp_delete_schedule @schedule_id = 9999

-CJ Julius

Creating a Simple Database Inventory Manager with Powershell – Part IV: GUI Front-End

Last Time, on Inventory Manager…
Now we make things pretty.
Let’s make things pretty.

Our data pull script has run, the database contains all our server  \ instance .database information and flowers are blooming; things are good. If this doesn’t sound like anything you have done, head back to the Introduction to see if you missed something.

Now it’s time to get everything connected so we can just fire up a GUI and press some buttons, to get the data we need fast.

How the Sausage is Made

If you’ve been following along with this series, and you’ve set up everything as instructed, then you should be able to download the pre-made GUI script and run it out of the box. If you’re pointing to a custom instance or database just change the $RepositoryInstance and/or $RepositoryDB before firing it up. If you want to learn more about how this was put together, keep reading. If you don’t care how the whazits work, you’re done.

At the top of our list is to create a form with buttons and give them names so we can call them in our Powershell. You can either build the form manually with this guide here, or use Visual Studio*. I’m going to be using the latter method because it’s the most versatile, and frankly the easiest. If you use the former, then you’re kind of on your own. Sorry.

In the  Visual Studio method (I’ll be using 2013 Ultimate) you’ll be utilizing Windows Forms and then running them through a “cleaner” to make them Powershell ready. This guide at FoxDeploy explains the whole thing spectacularly and shows you how to create some very complicated UI’s that are Powershell-friendly. I’d recommend going through Parts I and II as they’ll be the things you’ll need to create what we’re going to use here and then come back. Don’t worry, I’ll wait.

Then We Build

Got the GUI code? Cool. The first part of Stephen’s code uses a -replace to filter the Windows Form code and make it work in Powershell. I took that piece and made it a second script so I could just have the clean version of the XAML in my final code. You can find that code here.

Just copy/paste your <Window>…</Window> code over the commented area and run the script. It will spit out the final code and tell you all of the objects you can tie actions to (Name, Value). Then drop in Stephen’s XAML reader code to the main script with the cleaned code and you should have a GUI… that does nothing.

Whee.
Whee.

As I mentioned before, when you pushed the XAML code through WPF_to_PSForm.ps1 it will tell you what the objects are on your form. For our purposes, this is simply a few buttons that need to be tied to stored procedures. We do this though .Add_Click() as in the example below:

$WPFBt_All_Data.Add_Click(
{
$sqlCommand = "
EXEC dbo.prGetInventory;
"
$dataset = Invoke-SQL -datasource $RepositoryInstance -database $RepositoryDB -sqlCommand $sqlCommand
Write-Host $dataset
$dataset | Out-GridView -Title "Database Inventory"
}
)

Nothing crazy that we haven’t been doing other than using Out-GridView. This cool little cmdlet pushes datasets out to a customizable table with filtering, sorting the ability to remove columns etc. -Title “SomeTitle” is the window title.

Sample sorted Database List with a few columns removed.
Sample sorted Database List with a few columns removed.

Once you’ve coded all of the buttons, then add the form display at the bottom, using out-null to suppress messages:

$Form.ShowDialog() | out-null

And that’s done. A Winner is You!

What now?

Using these scripts, you can go out and grab any information from the servers\instances you specify, pull it back into a centralized location and then use a GUI front-end to make fine tuning and retrieval easy. As I stated previously, this is a bare-bones system to centralize your database information. You can gather any piece of information from the Server, Instance or Database level by using the same tools that are currently collecting and retrieving this information.

It’s been a long journey, but thanks for sticking with it! If you want to make any alterations to the code or tighten it up (Odin knows that it needs it), feel free to make the changes and shoot them back to me. I’ll definitely give you credit for significant changes in this blog or the code itself.

Also, and I think this goes without saying, but if you want to use this in your personal or business environment: have at it! Just please make sure you give me proper credit, with maybe a link back to my blog/Twitter/Linkedin? That’d be super cool of you.

Thanks again and happy Inventorying!

–CJ Julius

*Full disclosure: I have not tried this with the Community version of Visual Studio, so all the features may not be there.

Creating a Simple Database Inventory Manager with Powershell – Part III: Data Pull

Powershell time; no really.
DB_inven_Mgmt_PS1_sm_III
I come bearing scripts.

Now it’s time to get to get this thing moving. We’re going to go out to each of our server\instances and pull back the information for our tables, updating them with the stored procedures from the last section.

We’re going to be looking at this script [DB-DataPull.ps1]. It’s about as simple as I could get it for our needs. There’s not a lot of frills, but it’s a good cop and it. gets. results.

If you think you missed something you can go back to Part II: Stored Procedures or check out the Introduction.

Get this Jalopy on the Road

The only thing you need to do is specify where the repository is. If the repository is on your local machine in the DBAdmin database then you need to change nothing.

$RepositoryInstance = '(local)'
$RepositoryDB = 'DBAdmin'

After that you’re done. Seriously. The rest of this post is going to be about the nuts and bolts of the script and what does what and why. If you’re looking to just get it fired up then you’re done. Be gone with you.

What’s in the box?

The first few functions (Get-Type and Out-DataTable) are required to turn multi-line WMI-Object output into DataTables so we can insert them into the Repository. These have been cleaned up and/or modified to fit our needs but are based on the code in the two links I provided.

The Invoke-SQL function is a pared-down version of a pretty popular script for sending dynamic SQL directly to a SQL server. There’s not much to be said about this one other than it opens a connection, sends the command and returns the results as a datatable.

Time to get into the meat of the process. First up, let’s grab all the Instance information using the stored procedure we built in the last post.

$ConnectionString = Invoke-SQL -datasource $RepositoryInstance -database $RepositoryDB -sqlCommand "
EXEC dbo.prGetConnectionInformation;
"

Using a foreach loop to cycle through the rows and thus connecting to each instance to pull the information. We’ll remove the ‘\\MSSQLSERVER’ part since that will actually break our connection, even though it’s the name of the instance (For more information on why this is, see every other Microsoft product ever created).

foreach ($Row in $ConnectionString.Rows)
{
Try
{
$SubConnection = $($Row[0]) -replace '\\MSSQLSERVER',''
$InstanceID = $($Row[2])
Write-Debug $InstanceID
Write-Debug $SubConnection
$Version = Invoke-SQL -datasource $SubConnection -database master -sqlCommand "
SELECT SERVERPROPERTY('productversion'), SERVERPROPERTY ('productlevel'), SERVERPROPERTY ('edition'), @@VERSION
"
}
...

And then with another loop we use dbo.UpdateInstanceList to push all that into our database.

Invoke-SQL -datasource $RepositoryInstance -database $RepositoryDB -sqlCommand "
EXEC dbo.prUpdateInstanceList
@MSSQLVersionLong = '$MSSQLVersionLong'
,@MSSQLVersion = '$MSSQLVersion'
,@MSSQLEdition = '$MSSQLEdition'
,@MSSQLServicePack = '$MSSQLServicePack'
,@InstanceId = $InstanceID
"

That’s it for the Instance information, let’s get the database information. We use the same process to generate the connections as we did before, so I’m going to skip that. The only change you should note is the inclusion of the statement TRUNCATE TABLE dbo.DatabaseList since we are going to completely repopulate it. This way no matter if databases are added or removed, we’re starting each pull with a clean slate.

We get our data via a cte…

$DataPull = Invoke-SQL -datasource $SubConnection -database master -sqlCommand "
with fs
as
(
select database_id, type, size * 8.0 / 1024 size
from sys.master_files
)
select
$InstanceID AS 'InstanceId',
name,
(select sum(size) from fs where type = 0 and fs.database_id = db.database_id) AS DataFileSizeMB
from sys.databases db
ORDER BY DataFileSizeMB
"

…and push it into the Repository via our stored procedure.

Invoke-SQL -datasource $RepositoryInstance -database $RepositoryDB -sqlCommand "
EXEC dbo.prInsertDatabaseList
@DatabaseName = '$DatabaseName'
,@InstanceListId = '$InstanceListId'
,@Size = $Size"

Lastly, we’ll get Service and Server information with the same rinse-and-repeat method, with one notable exception. If you try to return the results of a WMI-Object and parse it into a SQL table, then you’re going to have a bad time.

This is where our two functions from the beginning come in to play. Out-DataTable and its sidekick Get-Type return the results into the proper type for our foreach loop.

$ServerInfo = Get-WmiObject win32_Service -Computer $Row[0] |
where {$_.DisplayName -match "SQL Server"} |
select SystemName, DisplayName, Name, State, StartMode, StartName | Out-DataTable

Now, if you run EXEC dbo.prGetInventory on your Repository database, you should see all of the information you could ever want right there. Magic.

But Wait, There’s More!

Now we’ve got all the data in one place, which is nice and all, but what if we want to get this information quickly? Sure we can jump into SSMS and run the procedures that have the data we want. However, I propose we make a GUI front-end so we can win friends and get free drinks.

DB_DataPull_FrontEnd_GUI_2
Something like this?

We’ll do that in Part IV: The Voyage Home GUI Front-End.

–CJ Julius

Creating a Simple Database Inventory Manager with Powershell – Part II: Stored Procedures

Dynamic SQL? Them's fightin' words.
Dynamic SQL? Them’s fightin’ words.

Now that we’ve got the tables built and populated them with data (you did that right?) we can define how our Powershell script is going to access that data. If you don’t know what database or tables I’m talking about, check out the Introduction and Part I.

You can send the dynamic SQL to your database via Powershell but you really want all interactions to go through stored procedures. Why? Lots of reasons, but here’s 2:

  1. Standardization – Every time you call a stored procedure the code will be exactly the same every time. If you change a hard-coded query in one part of your script, but not another, you can get inconsistent results.
  2. Performance – Unless you’re accessing thousands of instances with this script then you may not care too much about performance, but SQL Server has a hard time building query plans off of dynamic SQL; it does so wonderfully when the code is in a compiled stored procedure.

So, that’s all well and good, but what do we need for our Powershell project to do? I’ve created the procedures that will allow you to do the basic tasks that you might be interested in. The sky is the limit if you want to do more.

The Procedure List
prGetConnectionInformation

[prGetConnectionInformation] – Setup script for 2012

Parameters:

  • Not a gosh-darn thing.

Returns:

  • Server\Instance string as ‘Connection’
  • ServerList.Id as ‘Server ID’
  • InstanceList.Id as ‘Instance ID’

Spits out a connection-string friendly version of all the servers and instances in the database.

prGetDatabasesAndSize

[prGetDatabasesAndSize] – Setup script for 2012

Parameters:

  • Not a gosh-darn thing.

Returns:

  • InstanceList.InstanceName
  • DatabaseList.DatabaseName
  • Size of the Database in Gigabytes as ‘SizeinGB’

Returns the database and the instance it belongs to along with the sizes of said DBs in Gigabytes for all databases in the database (Yo dawg, heard you like databases).

prGetInstances

[prGetInstances] – Setup script for 2012

Parameters:

  • Not a gosh-darn thing.

Returns:

  • InstanceList.InstanceName
  • InstanceList.MSSQLVersion
  • InstanceList.MSSQLEdition
  • InstanceList.MSSQLVersionLong

Basically returns everything in the dbo.InstanceList table that someone might be interested in.

prGetInventory

[prGetInventory] – Setup script for 2012

Parameters:

  • Not a gosh-darn thing.

Returns:

  • ServerList.ServerName
  • ServerList.IPAddress
  • ServerList.OSName
  • ServerList.OSServicePack
  • InstanceList.InstanceName
  • InstanceList.MSSQLVersion
  • InstanceList.MSSQLEdition
  • InstanceList.MSSQLVersionLong
  • Size of the Database in Gigabytes as ‘SizeinGB’

Leaves for a while and then comes back with everything in your Inventory. Does not bring back anything from dbo.ServiceList for visual reasons (we’ll see this later in the Powershell).

prGetServerNames

[prGetServerNames] – Setup script for 2012

Parameters:

  • Not a gosh-darn thing.

Returns:

  • ServerList.ServerName

Just brings back all the servers. Nothing else. Stop asking.

prGetServers

[prGetServers] – Setup script for 2012

Parameters:

  • Not a gosh-darn thing.

Returns:

  • ServerList.ServerName
  • ServerList.OSName
  • ServerList.OSServicePack

Returns all the information at the Server Level excluding IP Address.

prGetServerServices

[prGetServerServices] – Setup script for 2012

Parameters:

  • Not a gosh-darn thing.

Returns:

  • ServerList.ServerName
  • ServiceList.ServiceName
  • ServiceList.ServiceDisplayName
  • ServiceList.ServiceStartMode
  • ServiceList.ServiceStartName as ‘Service_Logon’

Spits out everything you and your friends ever wanted to know about Services in the dbo.ServiceList table and the name of the Server they are on.

prInsertDatabaseList

[prInsertDatabaseList] – Setup script for 2012

Parameters:

  • DatabaseName VarChar(MAX) (surprise! parameters!)
  • InstanceListId BigInt
  • Size Float

Returns:

  • Error Code if applicable

Inserts new Database entries as provided by the Powershell script.

prInsertServiceList

[prInsertServiceList] – Setup script for 2012

Parameters:

  • ServerName VarChar(MAX)
  • ServiceDisplayName VarChar(MAX)
  • ServiceName VarChar(MAX)
  • ServiceState VarChar(MAX)
  • ServiceStartMode VarChar(MAX)
  • ServiceStartName VarChar(MAX)

Returns:

  • Error Code if applicable

Wow. Look at all the VarChar(MAX)’s. These could probably be turned into other datatypes that are smaller, especially ServiceStartMode. In the interest of brevity I just made these as versatile as I could.  This may change in the future if I get a chance to tighten this up.

Oh, and this stored procedure inserts new services into the dbo.ServiceList table by finding the ServerName in dbo.ServerList via text search.

prUpdateInstanceList

[prUpdateInstanceList] – Setup script for 2012

Parameters:

  • MSSQLVersionLong VarChar(MAX)
  • MSSQLVersion VarChar(MAX)
  • MSSQLEdition VarChar(MAX)
  • MSSQLServicePack VarChar(20)
  • InstanceId BigInt

Returns:

  • Error Code if applicable

Updates dbo.InstanceList with values passed from the script. If things have changed, this will overwrite the old data in the column.

prUpdateServerList

[prUpdateServerList] – Setup script for 2012

Parameters:

  • IPAddress VarChar(20)
  • OSName VarChar(100)
  • OSServicePack VarChar(100)
  • ServerName VarChar(MAX)

Returns:

  • Error Code if applicable

Adds Server information to dbo.ServerList by matching on the ServerName. This too will overwrite old data with new values passed to it.

Utility.prInsertNewServerAndInstance

[prInsertNewServerAndInstance] – Setup script for 2012

Parameters:

  • ServerName VarChar(MAX)
  • InstanceName VarChar(MAX)

Returns:

  • Error Code if applicable

Utility that Creates New Server and Instance if they don’t exist already.

I Was Told There’d Be PowerShell

And that’s the end of our Database setup. We now have a DB somewhere with tables and procedures, ready to be populated with our Server\Instance.Database information.

With the frame now in place, seats and tires (nice choice of body color maybe), we are prepared to drop the engine in. We’ll get started on that in our next section.

–CJ Julius

Creating a Simple Database Inventory Manager with Powershell – Part I: Building the Repository Database

I've got it. We'll put the databases in a database
I’ve got it! We’ll put the databases in a database.

This first part is simply setting up the database and the tables underneath of them. I’ve tried to make this as painless as possible by providing scripts do do most of this for you. I’ll use this infrastructure piece to explain some of the data that we’ll be pulling back.

This is by no means an exhaustive list of all the information that can be retrieved, but it serves as a foundation to show how all data could be pulled back to these tables. The only limit is determining how you’re going to retrieve this data.

This part will require some legwork from you as entering the ServerName and InstanceName with corresponding Id fields will be necessary. You should only have to do this once*.

If you’re unclear about what all this is then, and think you missed something, check out the Introduction.

[DBAdmin_QA]

[DBAdmin_QA.sql] – Setup script for 2012 can be retrieved here.

This is the database that will act as the repository for all of the information we want to collect. You can call it whatever you want, as you can change this in the code later, but I don’t recommend it the first time around. Why make it more complicated than it needs to be?

Make sure you take a look at the settings and verify they fit to your environment. It is intentionally small and grows slowly as we most likely will not be making it larger by leaps and bounds.

You will want to also make sure that the user you will be making updates/deletes/etc as, has full access to this database. This is a ‘durh’, but I always have to say it.

[dbo].[ServerList]

[dbo.ServerList.sql] – Setup script for 2012 can be retrieved here.

This is our master list of all Servers that contain SQL instances we want to know about. Initially, you’ll want to insert all the Server Names (fully qualified if necessary for your environment) leaving the other fields blank. I don’t put things in bold unless they’re important.

An example of T-SQL code to insert these items:

INSERT INTO dbo.ServerList
( ServerName )
VALUES
('SOMESERVER'),
('SOMEOTHERSERVER')

Notable Columns:

Id – Identity Column for all Servers
ServerName – Manually entered Server Name
IPAddress – IP Address of Server
OSName – Name of the Operating System
OSServicePack – Number of the Service Pack

[dbo].[InstanceList]

[dbo.InstanceList.sql] – Setup script for 2012 can be retrieved here.

Contains all of the Instances and the proper ServerListId (Foriegn Key to dbo.ServerList.Id) as well as some related information. You’ll need to INSERT all of the Instances and match them up to the ServerList.Id column when you inserted the servers.

At some point in the future I may add to the code where it dynamically builds the InstanceList, but that has not been done. This is because there are some instances that ‘exist’ on servers are shut down or disabled in some way. This allows the Instance to be listed in your Full Inventory even if it can’t be accessed. Wouldn’t be much of an Inventory if we weren’t able to inventory it.

An example of T-SQL code to insert these items:

INSERT INTO dbo.InstanceList
(InstanceName,ServerListId )
VALUES
('NAMEDINSTANCE',1)
,('MSSQLSERVER',2)

If you’re a lazy bum and don’t like matching ServerList.Id’s to InstanceList.ServerListId:

INSERT INTO dbo.InstanceList
( InstanceName
,ServerListId
)
SELECT 'NAMEDINSTANCE',
sl.Id
FROM dbo.ServerList sl
WHERE sl.ServerName = 'SOMESERVER'

UPDATE: I’ve made this even easier with a new stored procedure Utility.prInsertNewServerAndInstance. If this is your first time seeing this then there was no update and this procedure has always been here. Look! Over there! Something distracting!

Notable Columns:

InstanceName – Manually entered name of the Instance
ServerListId  – Manually entered FK to dbo.ServerList.Id
MSSQLVersion – Version of MSSQL running this Instance
MSSQLVersionLong – The long-form version of previous column
MSSQLServicePack – Current Service Pack of the MSSQL engine
MSSQLEdition – Edition of the MSSQL engine
isProduction – Manual bit flag to designate a production instance

[dbo].[ServiceList]

[dbo.ServiceList.sql] – Setup script for 2012 can be retrieved here.

The dbo.ServiceList table contains information on MSSQL services running on the server. That does include the MSSQL Database Engine, but also other items such as Reporting Services or Full Text Services.

dbo.ServiceList is dynamically filled so there is no need to add any information to this table.

Notable Columns:

ServiceDisplayName – The Display Name of the Service
ServiceName – The system name for the service
ServiceState – State of the Service (ie “Running”)
ServiceStartMode – Start Mode of Service (ie “Auto”)
ServiceStartName – User the Service is running as

[dbo].[DatabaseList]

[dbo.DatabaseList.sql] – Setup script for 2012 can be retrieved here.

This table is the dynamically generated list of all the tables in the database. As you’ll see later in the Powershell, anything we can pull back from sys.databases (or anything we can join to it) can be put in this table or a related table.

Notable Columns:

DatabaseName – Name of the database (crazy, right?)
SizeInMB – Size of the database returned in Megabytes

dbo.DatabaseList is dynamically filled so there is no need to add any information to this table.

Database Ready

And that’s it for the tables and database. Keep in mind that this is a basic structure that can be the core of any setup you’d like. Any data you can capture via T-SQL or Powershell can be compiled and put into these tables or better yet, other related tables.

In the next post, I’ll talk about how we’re going to be allowing this information to be put into the database via stored procedures.

 

*Unless you forgot to make backups and accidentally wipe the tables. In this case, you can think about your mistake while you re-enter all the data again.

–CJ Julius